The exposition begins on the first floor, where the hall “Ancient Belarus” is located. The exposition of this hall tells about the history and development of the Belarusian lands, beginning with the Stone Age until the end of the XVIII century, ie. sections of Rzeczpospolita. In the first showcase are the items that belong to the most ancient period of our history – the Paleolithic. The main material from which the tools were made during this period was stone. One of the oldest items presented in the museum are scraper and spiker, which is more than 40 thousand years old. There are also items made from the bones of ancient animals. For example, a processed fragment of a mammoth tusk, bone diggers, daggers, etc. You can see in the museum and works of art from the Paleolithic era – plates on which ornamentation or, in other words, churings were applied. Changing the climate in the Mesolithic Age leads to a change in the plant and fauna on the territory of Belarus. A man invents a bow and arrows (the tips of which are represented in the museum), which changes the nature of the hunt, the object of which is now smaller animals. Also in this part of the exhibition you can see the baton of the shaman of the Mesolithic age. After the Mesolithic Age of the Neolithic Age. The tools of labor in this era, as a rule, continued to be made from flint, which now was not only collected on the surface of the earth, but also mined by the mine method. The center for the extraction of flint on our lands became Western Belarus. On the territory of the Volkovysk district of the Grodno region, near the Krasnoselsky settlement, about 200 mines of the Neolithic and Bronze Age era were found. In the Neolithic times, religious views of ancient people and art were further developed. The most striking examples of Neolithic art are, as shown in the window, finds from the settlement of Osovets – the bone head of a duck, the figure of a snake. Attention is drawn to the image of a man made of wood, which is more than 3.5 thousand years old. At the end of the 3rd millennium BC. the Bronze Age begins on the territory of Belarus. Bronze objects come to our lands from the Black Sea and Balkan-Carpathian regions. In the window are presented copper decorations – diadems, as well as ax-celt. The distance from the ancient centers of metallurgy was the reason for the long use of stone products as tools. You should pay attention to the stone axes with drilled holes, which were processed already at a higher level. After the bronze age comes the iron. During this period (VII-VI centuries BC – V century AD), iron on our lands was obtained from bog ore. It was melted in special stoves-domnitsa at a temperature of 1100-1350 degrees Celsius. The iron in such furnaces was sintered into a porous mass, which is called kritsa. After completion of the melting process, the furnace was broken, the crust was extracted, several times calcined and chiseled to remove impurities. From the wicked iron, axes, sickles, arrowheads were made, presented in the display case.