A document confirming the historic value of the station is a telegram informing that the new voluminous and beautiful building, architecture – the pseudo-Russian fortress style was first built in Brest-Litovsk and was opened on May 28, 1886.
History of the station
The station of the Brest-Central station is an architectural monument of the Republic of Belarus, an open-air museum, a marble museum. He is the first to meet and the latter see off the guests of our Republic, the CIS countries and Europe.
In its architecture and value, the station building is listed in the UNESCO monuments. On May 28, 2012 the station was 126 years old.
In 1883 according to the decree of Tsar Alexander II, they began to build a railway station and the Brest-Central station, and on May 28, 1886 the station comes into service and receives Tsar Alexander III and guests, a huge event is taking place – celebrations of the name day of Tsar Alexander III and a meeting with the heir of the German throne, Wilhelm , son of the German Chancellor.
The station was built and the station was designed by the architect B. Lodberg with the participation of engineers L. Nikolai and I. Gorbunov. The total area of 970.18 square sazhen (4417 m2), the cost of more than 2 million rubles in gold throughout the station and buildings.
The railway station was considered a castle or a palace, it was called “Brest-Litovsky railway station”.
Classically, the facades were decorated, the forms of neo-Gothic, fashionable in the middle of the XIX century, were used, the station was considered the largest and most beautiful in the Russian Empire.
In 1888 160 electric bulbs were installed in the station building and on the platform, the current for which was generated by three dynamos with the help of steam installations, while the stations of Moscow and St. Petersburg were illuminated with kerosene lamps. To serve the high guests there was a buffet, and there were also three entrances for passengers, depending on the importance of the people.
On the Eastern side penates were attached for the tsar’s mail and communications, gendarmerie rooms and royal rest rooms (pochivalni), since Tsars Nicholas I, Alexander II, Alexander Ill, Nicholas II came to the outskirts of Russia, the borders were near Warsaw and conducted inspections of troops in the present Northern town.
This station served passengers before the First World War. In 1915, the Russian troops, not resisting the onslaught of the troops of the Kaiser Germany, retreating in the wartime doctrine, destroyed the station, more than 60% of the building was damaged, bridges and the Brest-Central station were destroyed. The station remained in this state until 1922. In 1921, the lands of our Byelorussia, according to the Riga Treaty, depart to Poland. In 1922, the question of restoring the station was solved and in 1929 it was put into operation in a new construction.
Restoration of the station
The Warsaw architect was reconstructing the railway station E. Goldberg. The destruction accounted for more than 60% of the total volume of the building. Reconstruction began in 1920 and continued until 1929. The winner of the competition is not known, but among the builders was a Russian military engineer Pavlov. The name was given to Brest-on-over-Bug.
The new facades of the station were made in the so-called “people’s style”. This style direction combined the features of the Renaissance, Baroque and traditional Polish-Belarusian-Lithuanian folk architecture. During the reconstruction, the bulk of the building remained the same. The central pylon of the main facade has changed in the direction of increase. He became a two-story building, considerably advanced. Now the building is crowned with high tongs and attics of Renaissance and Baroque forms. Risalitas of the main facade turned into two-storyed stories, supported by buttresses going to the middle of the second floor. The facades of the building were more restrained, the main decor was moved to the upper part of the building. The building was plastered. The main plane of the walls had a buffy hue, the projecting parts, painted in white, gave the building expressiveness and decorativeness.
In the architectural solutions of volumes, the principles of building forms, decor, felt the influence of the works of Polish architect S. Schiller (1857-1933). One of the probable examples used in the reconstruction of the station could be the Poniatowski bridge in Warsaw, built according to his design in 1905-1913.
Similar stations were built at the stations of Byala Podlyaska (Poland), Kovel (Ukraine), Slonim (Belarus), built in the 1920s.
During the Second World War, the fascists did not destroy the station building. From 22.06.1941 to 29.06.1941 the station was guarded by policemen, railwaymen and servicemen. Defenders of the station in the first days of the war believed that this was a provocation, but, alas, it was a war.
Defending the station, many defenders died, it is L.D. Elin, the chief of the Brest branch of the traffic service with his team, A. Ya. Vorobyev – the head of the police station with the police, the sergeant P. P. Basnev with the servicemen. This is a tragic page of the history of the station, for the fascists buried the basements with water, the defense was broken.
In 1945 Stalin moved to Berlin via Brest to sign the capitulation and stated the following: “Despite the post-war devastation of the country in Brest, it is necessary to build such a station, so that there would be the power and pride of the Soviet Union”.
In 1949 Clement Efremovich Voroshilov arrived in Brest to consider the construction of a new station building. In 1950 the Belarusian Railways Administration commissioned the reconstruction of the station to the Kievgiprotrans Institute. The team of architects: architect I. S. Petryakov, G. I. Granatkin, co-authors architect B. I. Alter, engineer S. L. Girenka.
The best architects and builders of the USSR took part in the construction. The main completion and reconstruction began in 1953, and in 1957 ticket offices, “intourist” halls, a customs hall and an accumulation hall entered the work.
The building was built in the style of the Soviet Empire, but it is sufficiently restrained, the facades are not overloaded with the decor typical of such buildings 1930-1950.
In 1975, a waiting room was built for people traveling abroad (a glass hall), so the cash-desk was connected to the customs hall.
From April to November 1993 the external restoration of the station was carried out by the company for the restoration of the monuments of the old days of the Republic of Poland.
Reconstruction of the station.
In 2008 the reconstruction of the passenger complex of the station of Brest-Central station began. The station is going through a new round of time. Reconstruction works are conducted by building trust No. 8. The authors of the reconstruction: the chief engineer of the project Alekseychuk Nikolai Petrovich, the chief architect is Anatoly Vladimirovich Apanasenok, the chief expert on architectural historical heritage – Valentin Smeyan.
The project provides for the reconstruction of three main facilities – the Moscow side, the Warsaw side and the railway station building.
On December 19, 2013 the objects of the completed 2nd stage of reconstruction of the railway station building were opened. It resulted in the restoration of the facade of the building, the installation of a waiting room for 240 seats, a waiting room for high comfort for 50 seats, a waiting room for people with disabilities, a bar and bistro, automatic and stationary storage rooms, rest rooms, complex of services to passengers (exchange office, pharmacy, ATM, medical center, etc.).
Entrances to the station building are made with the use of automatic sliding doors, waiting rooms are equipped with a wireless Internet access system. A system of spatial orientation with the use of pointers in Belarusian and English languages has been created, and a barrier-free environment has been created.
Memorable plaques were installed on the facades in memory of the past events: the exploits of the defenders of the station, the fact of Lenin’s search in Germany in 1900 for the publication of the Iskra newspaper, commemorative plaques that the station is an architectural monument of the Republic of Belarus, anniversary of the history of the Belarusian Railways.
From 1886 the station met and saw off: the kings of Nicholas I, Alexander II, Alexander III, Nicholas II, Lenin, Stalin, Voroshilov, Khrushchev, Brezhnev, A.N. Kosygin, P.M. Masherov, A.A. Gromyko, Kim Il Sung, J. Pompidou, heads of the Governments of the Warsaw Pact. Artists: l. Zykina, E.Pieha, С Rotaru, M. Ulyanov, I. Kobzon. Composers: A. Pakhmutova, N. Dobronravov. Cosmonauts: P. Klimuk and V. Tereshkova. A lot of delegations passed through the station. The station with a rich history glorifies Brest and its inhabitants.
The whole history of the station is listed in the books and stands of the historical and political museum, which was created on May 24, 1986 on the basis of the original archives of St. Petersburg, Moscow, Grodno, the Brest Hero-Fortress memorial complex, who was involved in the creation of the museum. The museum was created by S. G. Stolyarchuk, Yu. I. Naymushin, S.T. Shpudeyko. S.T. Shpudeiko conducts museum work, writes history, conducts excursions for guests, pupils of schools and all educational institutions. Only in 2011 the museum was visited by 1330 listeners. In the museum fund of the station there are 98 important expositions. The collective participated in Exhibition of national economy achievements (Moskow), there are diplomas, letters and Government awards.
The museum reflects the everyday work of the staff of the station, for which fourteen employees received honorary titles and were awarded the “Honorary Railroader” badge.
In the team there are such dynasties as: the families of I.I. Kissel – the total work experience of 252 years; family and Rachkovskaya (Lipko), relatives worked at the Brest-Litovsk railway since 1913; the family of A.V. Semak – 125 years old, the family of T.G. Gutik – 183 years, only eleven dynasties worked and still work at the railway station.
Exhibition expositions (stands) tell about history, defense, work activity, sports work, rest, celebrations in the days of anniversaries.